ancient Egypt Although one can define temporally the ancient Egypt as the period in the history of Egypt from the invention of the hieroglyphic writing at the end of the ancient concept that refers specifically to the civilization that lived on the banks of the Nile during this period of almost four thousand years of history. The Egyptian collection of tribes who created the first Pharaonic empire until its collapse at the beginning of the Christian era, ancient Egypt has witnessed major events that have profoundly influenced the culture of a large part of peoples the Africa, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
It is the late Neolithic tribes that are starting to come together in the fertile Nile Valley, leading to the formation of two kingdoms politically distinct but closely linked by a common culture Upper Egypt south, and Lower Egypt to the north (the Nile flows from south to north, from which these names). The tradition attributes to the southern kingdom of the unification of the country (which becomes the first state in the world) and the establishment of the first Pharaonic (by the pharaoh Narmer, many experts believe). Dividing the history of Egypt in large periods and thirty-one dynasties is inherited from the priest-historian THIRD CENTURY BC. AD, although the Egyptians were not earlier this distinction the monarchy for them was continuing.
Pre-dynastic period so-called kings of the North. The stone Palermo mentions ten kings bearing the double crown, a symbol of the Upper and Lower Egypt met, but without their names.
- Thinite period the first Pharaonic dynasties (This capital, near 'Abydos)
- Former Empire regarded by the ancient Egyptians themselves as the Golden Age of their civilization with, among other things, construction of the largest pyramids.
- I RE interim period period of political instability and fragmentation of the country into two rival kingdoms.
- Middle Kingdom boom, stable and high artistic activity.
- SECOND period period of serious unrest, the country's occupation by the Hyksos, liberation of the country by Ahmose.
- New Empire the most prosperous period in the history of Egypt, has a cultural and artistic revival whose peak is reached with the EIGHTEENTH AND nineteenth dynasties, but the era of Thutmose of Amenhotep ( Greek Aménophis) and Ramessides (including Ramesses II).
- THIRD period period of civil war, kings priests, Libyan and Ethiopian domination (Kingdom of Kush), Assyrian invasion.
- Low era dynasty knows, Persian occupation, recent dynasties and indigenous domination Hellenistic (Alexander, the Ptolemies). The end of ancient Egyptian history varies depending on the viewpoint adopted. It concludes
- from an ethnological, the death of Aboriginal last pharaoh, Nectanebo II -343;
- a political point of view, the death of the last independent sovereign
- a cultural point of view, when converting the last temple Egyptian Coptic church, the temple of Isis at Philae in 535 (closure 551). History summary
The Pharaonic Egypt during its 3000 years of history is not a matter of geographical boundaries. In this respect she experienced many situations with first Nubia then extending to the Mediterranean before being reduced in general during the Late Period. Yet one can not deny that some characters are inseparable from geographical identity of Egypt and the Nile has shaped the way of life and civilization of Egypt.